This One Ingredient Could Make Peanut Butter Deadly For Your Dog

For the most part, peanut butter can be awesome for dogs and most dogs LOVE it! Peanut butter is great as an occasional “high value” treat, it’s useful for hiding pills, and it can even be used to distract your dog while giving them a bath or trimming their nails.

While most peanut butter brands are safe for dogs, not all types of peanut butter are safe and not all amounts of peanut butter are safe, either.

Do Not Give Your Dog This Type of Peanut Butter

It’s no longer easy to say whether it’s safe to give even a small amount of peanut butter to your dog. And there’s a one-word answer as to why… Xylitol!

Xylitol is an increasingly common sugar-replacement sweetener that’s in hundreds of products, including some brands of peanut butter. It’s an “all natural” sugar substitute that’s fine for people, but it’s extremely poisonous to dogs and poisons thousands of dogs each year. We at Preventive Vet are happy to report that there has been an increase in awareness about xylitol – both in peanut butter and in the more than 700 other products xylitol is found in – and we have been able to influence some companies to change their labeling and warning practices. (Skip to the end of this article to see the progress made so far.) But there’s still far-too-many people that remain unaware of the very severe danger that xylitol poses to dogs, and so we all must do everything we can to continue to raise awareness and affect the important changes that will save dog lives and dog lover heartbreak.

Why Xylitol Is Dangerous to Dogs

Xylitol is a sweetener that’s gaining in popularity because of its dental benefits for people as well as its suitability as a sugar substitute for people with diabetes. Yet thousands of dogs are accidentally poisoned by xylitol every year.

In fact, the toxic dose of xylitol in dogs is even less than chocolate! For example, as little as 1.37 grams of xylitol can cause a rapid drop in a dog’s blood sugar (“hypoglycemia”) and result in staggering, disorientation, collapse, and seizures in a 30-pound dog*. If a dog of the same size ingested 6.8 grams, it could be enough to cause a debilitating and likely deadly destruction of the dog’s liver cells. Now consider that it would take about 22 times more (150 grams) dark chocolate to result in the same level of severe toxicity.

*Sources: New Findings On The Effects Of Xylitol Ingestion In Dogs from ASPCA-APCC 2006Acute Hepatic Failure And Coagulopathy Associated With Xylitol Ingestion In Eight Dogs from ASPCA-APCC 2006, published in JAVMA (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006; 229:1113-1117)

Brands of Peanut Butter That Contain Xylitol and Are Not Safe for Dogs

There are still four known peanut/nut butter brands that contain xylitol (down from five brands) and more may spring up — so please read labels carefully. (Update April 13, 2018: Another brand has sprung up and been brought to our attention! So the list is back up to FIVE brands. This brand is called “No Cow” and it’s been added to the searchable list on our site, as well as the list of dog-dangerous peanut butter/nut butter spreads below.) 

When selecting a peanut butter or peanut-flavored spread, keep these xylitol-containing brands far away from your dog:

The increasing popularity of xylitol as an ingredient in a growing number of products — including gums, mints, chewable vitamins, ice creams, common supplements, and many others — highlights the importance of reading ingredient labels, as well as the danger of assuming that what’s safe for you, or even your kids, is also safe for your pets. See our list of over 700 products that contain xylitol — many will surprise you!

Peanut Butter On A SpoonWhat Type of Peanut Butter is Best for Dogs?

Generally speaking, any peanut butter that doesn’t contain xylitol (or chocolate) should be fine for a dog. It can be a good source of protein and healthy fat for your dog — in moderation, of course. However, some peanut butters are healthier than others.

A lot of peanut butter you find on the shelves has good qualities when it comes to your dog, but probably contains preservatives and extra sugar that aren’t great. Your best bet is to find a peanut butter (or other nut butter) that is low on or completely free of additives. And read labels and ingredient lists carefully – don’t assume that “all natural” or “no artificial sweeteners” on the front label means it’ll be safe for your dog. Xylitol is technically an “all natural” sweetener!

If you have a decent blender or food processor, you can easily make your own peanut and nut butter at home! It will be healthier for your dog and they won’t know the difference.

Homemade Nut Butter Recipe

If you want to make a great homemade nut butter here’s a recipe from our friends at Show Me The Yummy. The recipe includes notes to make it dog-friendlier by cutting down on or eliminating ingredients like salt and sugar. Teddy, the photogenic dog in our article, is their nut butter taste tester. Enjoy!

How Much Peanut Butter is OK for Dogs?

A little bit of xylitol-free peanut butter for your dog will likely be perfectly fine — overdo it though, and you can give your dog a nasty (as well as painful and expensive) case of pancreatitis and/or contribute to obesity.

So you need to be careful how much peanut butter you give your dog — or any treat for that matter. The rule of thumb is to give no more than 10% of your dog’s daily calories in treats.

The exact amount of peanut butter will vary from dog to dog and from peanut butter to peanut butter (check the caloric count on the label). Generally speaking, small dogs should get no more than about 1/2 tablespoon of peanut butter per day and larger dogs should get no more than about 1 tablespoon. You can find a more detailed breakdown in “Is Peanut Butter Good for Dogs?

* Note that in dogs with chronic pancreatitis or those at increased risk for developing acute or chronic pancreatitis – like Miniature Schnauzers and Yorkshire Terriers – even a very small amount of a high-fat treat like peanut butter may be enough to bring on or worsen their pancreatitis and should be avoided completely.

Creamy or Crunchy Peanut Butter for Dogs?

You may have read that crunchy peanut butter can be a choking hazard for dogs. This is pretty unlikely, unless you’re giving a very small dog a very large amount of crunchy peanut butter.

But as you learned in the section above, even a decent-sized dog should only be allowed about a tablespoon of peanut butter per day, so it’s unlikely you’ll give enough at any one time to present a choking hazard.

So go ahead and give your dog whichever peanut butter—creamy, crunchy, super crunchy, or any other variation — you have. Creamy peanut butter tends to be easier to smear if you plan to use it to distract your dog during a bath (you can smear peanut butter on the bathtub/shower wall to distract your pooch) or while trimming their nails (you can smear peanut butter on a plate so your dog will be so busy licking they won’t notice or care that your cutting their nails).

Is Peanut Butter and Jelly OK for Dogs?

Peanut butter is one thing, but jelly should be off-limits to your dog. Why? First, there’s a lot of sugar in jam, jelly, and preserves — if you’re already giving your dog peanut butter, adding extra sugar will further increase the risk of obesity and diabetes. Second, some jelly contains dog-dangerous xylitol. Third, some types of jelly are made from fruits that you shouldn’t give your dog.

For example, while strawberry jelly may not be toxic to dogs, grape jelly could be. Grapes are poisonous to some dogs and can cause acute kidney failure. The same goes for raisins and currants.

Either way, it’s best to hold the jelly and jam when it comes to treating your dog.

Can Dogs Be Allergic to Peanuts?

Unlike some humans, dogs do not appear to have an allergic reaction to peanuts. I’m not aware of any documented cases of allergic or anaphylactic reactions to peanuts in dogs, nor to other nuts or seeds for that matter. But that doesn’t completely rule out the possibility.

So, if it’s your dog’s first (or second) time having peanut butter, or another nut butter, and you’re concerned, give them just a small amount to start (like a lick off the tip of your finger) and keep an eye on them. Concerning signs to watch for are listed below. As long as you don’t see any of these signs within about an hour, you’re likely OK.

  • Signs of an acute allergic reaction (severe) in dogs:
    • Hives or small areas of swelling on their body
    • Swelling around their eyes and/or muzzle
    • Rapid breathing or difficulty breathing
    • Vomiting
    • Diarrhea
    • Collapse
    • Severe itchiness
  • Signs of a chronic food allergy (mild to moderate) in dogs:
    • Chronic/recurrent ear infections
    • Thin fur coat
    • Chronic itchiness and/or chewing of their paws
    • Recurrent problems with impacted anal glands. 

 

Authored by Jason Nicholas, BVetMed (“Dr. J”) @ https://www.preventivevet.com

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Guilty or Innocent? Do pets know they have done something wrong when they act “guilty”?

Do pets understand right from wrong?

guilty_dog_2Do dogs and cats instinctively understand right and wrong? Does your dog know that eating the cake left on the coffee table is a no-no? Does your cat grasp the concept that peeing on the new carpet is not acceptable? Probably not! Innately, pets focus on the basic requirements for survival. They need to eat and eliminate in order to live.  Scarfing down the cake and squatting on the rug fulfill these basic needs. So, what’s wrong with that??

 

“Innately, pets focus on the basic requirements for survival.”

Pets may not feel a sense of wrongdoing because they don’t understand that what they did was wrong. Do you think your dog really understands that it’s wrong to eat cake left within his reach on the coffee table? Likely not. He sees an accessible treat and eats it. Do you think your cat really understands that urinating on the rug is wrong? Likely not. He sees a soft surface to squat on that absorbs his urine rather than splashing it back up on him. Knowing you committed a misdeed is necessary for true guilty feelings. If your pet doesn’t understand that his actions are wrong, how can he feel guilty?

“pets can learn right from wrong”

Nevertheless, pets can learn right from wrong. How do they do this? We teach them. We provide consistent, timely responses to their actions, establish a pattern, and they eventually associate their actions with predictable consequences.  A timely response is key. If you catch your dog eating the cake or see your cat squatting on the carpet and quickly intervene, they will get the message.  Uttering a firm, “NO!” as you steer them away from the cake or rug and place them in front of the food bowl or litter box is a good lesson.

“Pets don’t associate prior actions
with delayed reactions.”

But, reprimanding a dog or cat for an infraction committed 10 hours or even 10 minutes ago doesn’t teach them right from wrong. Pets don’t associate prior actions with delayed reactions. In other words, if you fuss about the torn up newspaper when you come home from work, you are wasting your energy. Your pet cannot make the association between your present response to something he did in the past.

So, do pets understand right from wrong? Yes, but only in the moment.

Are guilty looks significant?

Head down. Eyes averted. Shoulders hunched. Tail thumping the floor. Body retreating. Your pet looks guilty, maybe even apologetic, right? WRONG! Your pet’s body posture and attitude do not indicate his guilt or remorse, only his response to your body posture and attitude.

“Your pet’s body posture and attitude do not
indicate his guilt or remorse, only his response
to your body posture and attitude.”

When you discover your favorite slippers have been destroyed or your new sofa is scratched, you naturally respond with a scowl, a sigh, or maybe even a shriek. Your cat or dog immediately responds with a submissive posture that you interpret as guilt. But this submissive action doesn’t reflect guilt. It is an effort to appease or calm you. And it often works! You look at that sad face and cave. Your anger and frustration evaporate! Would you be so forgiving if your pet bounded up to you tail wagging with your favorite chocolate candy all over his face?  Of all the nerve! How can this creature of destruction look so happy after ruining your sofa/slippers/dinner/etc!

So, are guilty looks significant? Of course! They just don’t signify guilt. They signify fear, concern, and anxiety of the pet in response to the agitated, angry look and sound of their owner.

Emotional Experimentation

One learned professor and author devised an experiment to determine a dog’s ability to feel guilty after doing something wrong. In the experiment, a treat was positioned in front of a dog. The owner instructed the canine not to eat the treat and left the room. Some dogs ate the treat while others refrained. When the owners returned, the researchers told some of them that their dog ate the treat when he actually did not. When these ill-informed owners scolded their dogs, the innocent dogs looked guilty nonetheless. The experiment concluded that the dogs looked guilty not because of what they did (after all they did nothing wrong), but rather as a reaction to what the owners did.

“The experiment concluded that the dogs looked guilty
not because of what they did…
but rather as a reaction to what the owners did.”

Submissive dogs lower their heads, hunch down, and avert their eyes when trying to diffuse a situation or appease their owners. In multi-dog households, the guilty looking dog may actually be the innocent pooch. For example, if two dogs are home and Dog A chews the newspaper, Dog B may look guilty because he is the peacemaker of the pair.

“The conclusion is that dogs look guilty for reasons
unrelated to their actions and
closely related to our actions”

Another experiment further validated the appeasement theory. Owners left dogs alone with food on the table. When the owners returned they weren’t told whether or not their dog ate the food so they responded positively to their pups. Clinical observers assessed the dogs’ behavior and noted that the guilty and innocent dogs greeted their owners in the same manner. The owners looked happy, so the dogs did, too. The conclusion is that dogs look guilty for reasons unrelated to their actions and closely related to our actions.

Guilty or Not Guilty. Should we care?

Now don’t think the inability to feel guilt will result in an incorrigible pet. Our pets do understand that certain actions violate family rules and will result in certain reactions. Cause and effect is a great lesson! Pets don’t have to feel guilty to be well-behaved. But even if pets do feel guilty sometimes, let’s not assume that their guilty looks are always based on their behavior.

We have lots of feelings for our pets. Let’s leave out the guilt and focus on love and affection!

 

This client information sheet is based on material written by Lynn Buzhardt, DVM

© Copyright 2016 LifeLearn Inc. Used and/or modified with permission under license.